Nystagmus is also widely called as wobbly eyes, refers to to-and-fro unintended, involuntary movements of the eye.
You will notice the child to have wobbly eyes. The child may attain a particular preferred head posture to see things as this is the position in which nystagmus gets dampened. Do not discourage your child from doing the same.
Nystagmus can be congenital i.e since birth or acquired. Nysatgmus that is present since birth is refered to as idiopathic infantile nystagmus or infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS). Though INS can happen along with sensory problems with your vision (like optic nerve or retina problems), it is not directly caused by these. INS is caused by instability in the eye-movement control system. Researchers have found a gene (called Xp11.4 – p11.3) to be related to a few types of INS. INS can be a disorder that runs in families where the “nystagmus gene” is usually carried from the mother to her son.
Acquired causes could be related to some drug ingestion, alcohol intake, ear disease, neurological or due to trauma.
Nystagmus can be diagnosed clinically. However waveforms may be recorded with a test called videonystagmography.
Currently infantile nystagmus syndrome cannot be completely cured but can be helped. The current treatment modalities help in reducing the abnormal head posture with improved visual function and cosmetic benefit in reducing the wobbly movements of the eyes.
The treatment modalities include medications in certain forms of nystagmus (mainly acquired nystagmus), prisms, contact lenses and is mainly surgical with procedures done on the extra-ocular muscles.
Infantile nystagmus syndrome per se does not cause decreased vision but there may be associated sensory problems that may be responsible for decreased vision. In fact majority of people with infantile nystagmus syndrome lead a normal, active life. However emotional over burst as nervousness, anger or excitement may cause increase in the nystagmus and can reduce vision. Nystagmus goes away during sleeping.
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